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#GeniusUpDailyNews! @EMPIREGENIUS: NASA Finds Supermassive Black Hole Birthing Stars at “Furious Rate”

Galaxy clusters have been fascinating astronomers for decades. Often consisting of thousands of galaxies, the clusters are the largest known structures being held together by gravitational forces.

At their centers, astronomers have found some of the biggest and most powerful black holes ever discovered, and high-energy jets of extremely hot particles emanating from these black holes were found to be preventing the formation of stars — which, of course, raised a galactic mystery: where are all the stars coming from?


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But now, thanks to data collected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, a team of scientists has foundthat a galaxy cluster called the Phoenix Cluster, some 5.8 billion light years from Earth, is birthing stars at a “furious rate.”

Its black hole seemed to be far weaker than other clusters’ black holes, with trillions of Suns’ masses worth of hot gas cooling around it, allowing the formation of a vast number of stars. Usually black holes have keep those gases from cooling — thereby stopping the formation of stars — by continuously spewing out high-energy jets of particles.

The research could help us understand the life cycle of galaxy clusters and how the supermassive black holes at their centers interfere — and sometimes, seemingly, aid — the formation of stars within them.

A paper of the results was published in The Astrophysical Journal last month.


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“Imagine running an air-conditioner in your house on a hot day, but then starting a wood fire. Your living room can’t properly cool down until you put out the fire,” co-author Brian McNamara from the University of Waterloo, Canada, said in a statement. “Similarly, when a black hole’s heating ability is turned off in a galaxy cluster, the gas can then cool.”

In fact, they found that the hot gas was cooling at the same rate as when a black hole stops injecting energy. And that means a huge amount of stars are allowed to be born in regions where the hot gas has cooled sufficiently — in fact, the Phoenix Cluster is forming new stars at 500 times the rate of the Milky Way galaxy, according to X-ray observations made by the Chandra Observatory.

This effect won’t go on forever, though.

“These results show that the black hole has temporarily been assisting in the formation of stars, but when it strengthens its effects will start to mimic those of black holes in other clusters, stifling more star birth,” co-author Mark Voit from Michigan State University said in the statement.

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Now That Mars rover Opportunity is dead. Here’s Where It Have Helped #GeniusUp! Humankind Intelligent Minds!

The spacecraft lasted more than 50 times longer than originally planned, delivering groundbreaking science and inspiring a generation

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After more than 14 years driving across the surface of Mars, the NASA rover Opportunity has fallen silent—marking the end of a defining mission to another world.

At a press conference at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, NASA bid farewell to the rover it placed on Mars on January 25, 2004: before Facebook, before the iPhone, and even before some of the scientists now in charge of it graduated high school. In its record-breaking time on Mars, the rover drove more than 28 miles, finding some of the first definitive signs of past liquid water on the red planet’s surface.

“With this mission, more than other robotic missions, we have made that human bond, so saying goodbye is a lot harder. But at the same time, we have to remember this phenomenal accomplishment—this historic exploration we’ve done,” says John Callas, the project manager for the Mars Exploration Rovers mission. “I think it’ll be a long time before any mission surpasses what we were able to do.”

NASA had not heard from the rover since June 2018, when one of the most severe dust storms ever observed on Mars blotted out much of the red planet’s sky and overtook the solar-powered rover. Initially, the storm didn’t give the team pause. From about November to January, the red planet saw seasonal winds strong enough to wipe accumulated dust from Opportunity’s solar panels, which is one of the major reasons the rover lasted so long in the first place. But when “rover cleaning” season came and went without signals from Opportunity, hopes that it had survived began to dim

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On January 25, the team sent Opportunity a set of last-ditch commands, hoping that the rover had fallen silent because of malfunctioning antennae and an internal clock on the fritz. But the commands meant to fix this admittedly unlikely scenario didn’t wake the rover.

Now, as Martian fall and winter overtake it, NASA says that the rover will remain forever paused halfway down a windswept gully, named Perseverance Valley for the rover’s dogged effort.

The announcement marks the end of the record-smashing Mars Exploration Rovers mission, which built and operated Opportunity and its sibling rover, Spirit. The two rovers were each designed to go less than a mile and last 90 to a hundred Martian days, or sols. But the pair surpassed every conceivable expectation. After landing on January 4, 2004, Spirit drove hard through rugged terrain until it got stuck in 2009 and went silent in 2010. Meanwhile, Opportunity went farther for longer than any other vehicle on another world—and all other Mars rovers combined.

“It was one heck of a mission, wasn’t it?” Mike Seibert, a former driver of Opportunity, says in an email. “I am looking forward to the future when Opportunity’s records fall, because that will mean that we continue to explore our solar system. And I look forward to congratulating the team that puts Opportunity into second place.” (See amazing pictures from 20 years of nonstop rovers on Mars.)

“I always felt that were really two honorable ways for a mission like this to end,” adds Cornell planetary scientist Steve Squyres, the mission’s longtime principal investigator. “One is simply that we wear the vehicles out. The other is Mars just finally reaches out and kills them. To have Opportunity go for 14-and-a-half years and then get taken out by one of the most ferocious Mars dust storms in decades—if that’s the way it plays out, we can walk away with our heads held high.”

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#GeiusUp Daily News! “Elon Musk Speaks On Humans Soon Be Able To Sell Our House And Move To Mars While Visiting The Moon!”

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Elon Musk has invested a lot of time and money into the fanciful prospect that people will want to hang out and smoke big biftas with him on Mars.

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SpaceX has long planned to put astronauts on the Red Planet by 2024, and now Musk has even estimated what upping sticks and actually moving to Mars could cost civilians in the future.

In a Twitter exchange, space podcast SPEXcast asked the entrepreneur: “What are the estimated costs for tickets to Moon/Mars accounting for reusability?”

Mr Musk answered: “Very dependant on volume, but I’m confident moving to Mars (return ticket is free) will one day cost less than $500k and maybe even below $100k.

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“Low enough that most people in advance economies could sell their home and move to Mars if they want.”

Does that include furniture or do you have to hire another Super Heavy Rocket? It’s a nightmare enough as it is. The free return-trip is a good deal, though, just in case the infinite and unknowable universe doesn’t quite measure up to your expectations.

SpaceX will hope to drum up investment with a number of round trips beyond the orbit of the Moon and back to Earth. The first lunar passenger is Japanese art curator Yusaku Maezawa, who will fly in 2023.

Elon Musk said: “ You want to wake up in the morning and think the future is going to be great – and that’s what being a spacefaring civilisation is all about.

“It’s about believing in the future and thinking that the future will be better than the past.

“And I can’t think of anything more exciting than going out there and being among the stars.”

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